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Jumieka

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Jumieka
Jamaica
Flag of Jamaica.svg Coat of arms of Jamaica.svg
Jumieka, Lan Wi Lob
LocationJamaica.svg
Jinaral Infamieshan
Kiapital: Kinston
Ofishal langwij: Ingglish
Adminischrieshan
Govament: Paalimenchri dimakrasi ah kanstityuushanal manaki
• Gobna-Jinaral: Patrick Allen
• Praim Minista: Andrew Michael Holness
Ieria: 10 991 km²
Papiulieshan: 2 950 210 (2015)
Densiti: 268
Adaels sitn
Koransi: Jumiekan dala (JMD)
Kaalin kuod: +1-876
ISO 3166 kuod: JM
Intanet TLD: .jm

Jumieka (vierieshan Jamieka ah Jomieka askaadn tu spiich rejista ar axent) a wah ailan nieshan we a paat a di Grieta hAntiliiz, bout 234 kilamiita (145 mail) lang ah bout 80 kilamiita (50 mail) waid. Ide ina di Kiaribiyan Sii, bout 145 kilamiita (90 mail) sout a Kyuuba, ah 190 kilamiita (120 mail) wes a di ailan we niem Ispanyuola, we mekop frah Ieti ah di Daminikan Ripoblik.

Di fos piipl dem we eh lib ina Jumieka, wena di Taino we eh-taak Arawak. Deh eh-niem di ailant Xaymaca (pronouns laka zai-ma-ka), we miin iida di "Lan a ud ah waata", ar "Lan a Spring". Spien ena di fos Yuropiyan konchri fi kliem Jumieka ah deh eh niemi Santiaago. Lieta Britn eh teki frah dem ah toni ina British Wes Indiz Kroun Kalani we niem Jumieka. Iget Indipendans frah Britn ina 1962 bot stil tan ina di Kamanwelt a Nieshan wid Kwiin Ilizibet II az di ed a stiet. Di kiapital a Kinston.

Jumieka ab di tod nofis piipl we chat Ingglish ina Naat Amoerka, afta Moerka ah Kianada ina da siem aada. Jumieka ab bout 5 milian sitizn wid likl anda aaf a dem a-lib ina wah nex konchri. Muos a di maigrantdem de a Moerka, Kianada ah Britn bot di dayaspora pred uoba di wuol wol. Di bigis indoschri a baxait ah tuurizam. Soh ada indoschri a kaafi, koko, shuga, rom, sichros ah banaana.

Jumieka piipl dem taak wah Ingglish-bies kriyuol Languij we deh kaal Patwa, ar jos Jumiekan. Ibies muosli pah 17t senchri Ingglish we deh tiich di Afrikan slievdem mix wid som a deh uona Wes Afrikan languij, ah likl bit a lef-bak Panish ah Puotigiis. Som a di languij koh frah di kolchadem we mekop Jumieka kolcha tu. Alduo di Jumiekan lexikan a muosli Ingglish, di grama a mienli Wes Afrikan; yu kiah fain soh similariti ina Naijiirian Pijin Ingglish.

Iibn duo a wah liili konchri, Jumieka gi di wol wuoliip ina myuuzik, spuots, rilijan ah wid Maakos Gyaavi elp, Blak Nashinalizim.

Etimalaji[edit | edit suos]

Di indijinos piipl, di Taino, kaali Xaymaca ina Arawakan, we miin se di "Lan a Ud ah Waata" ar di "Lan a Spring".

Koluokali Jumiekandem refa tu deh ailant uom az di "Rak", frah we deh get foerda slang niem laka "Jamrak", ah "Jamdong", ar deh jos kaali bai di tuu leta "JA".

Ischri[edit | edit suos]

Ischri a Jumieka

Prii-ischri[edit | edit suos]

Enri Maagan (Henry Morgan) wena wah fiemos Kiaribiyan pairet ah praivitier; ih eh fos kom a di Wes Indiiz az indencha saabant, laka muos a di hoerli Ingglish kalanis. Afta ih don-ried nof Panish seklment, deh mek ih ton Gobna fi Jumieka.
Prins Chaalz (Prince Charles) ah Kamila Paaka Buolz (Camilla Parker Bowles) visit Jumieka.

Di Taino indijinos piipl, wa taak Arawak languij, arijiniet ina Sout Amoerka, sekl pah di ailant bitwiin 4000 ah 1000 BKE. Wen Krixtifa Kolombos kech de ina 1494, deh weh ab muo dah 200 vilij ruul ba kasiik (chiif a vilij). Di sout kuos a Jumieka ab di muos papilieshan, espeshal roun di ieria nou nuo az Uol Aaba (Old Harbour). Di Taino stil de a Jumieka wen di Ingglish tek kanchuol a di ailant ina 1655. Di Jumiekan Nashinal Eritij Chos a-chrai fi lokiet ah dakiument eni evidens a di Taino.

Panish ruul (1509-1655)[edit | edit suos]

Krixtifa Kolombos se Jumieka a Spien lan wen im lan deso ina 1494. Im prabli lan a Jrai Aaba, we dem kaal Diskovri Bie nou. Alduo som piipl no grii an se a kuda Sint Anz Bie. Kolombos eh niem Sint Anz Bie "San Gloria" wentaim im fos siit frah ih ship. 1.6 kilamiita wes a Sint Anz Bie a di fos Panish piipl dem tong, Siviya La Nueva (Sevilla La Nueva), we setop ina 1509. Bot ina 1524 deh lefi kaa dem se siknis eh dide. Den deh mek Panish Tong di kiapital, da taim de roun 1534, ieh kaal Sin Jiego De La Viega (Santiago de la Viega) ina wa deh kaal Sin Kiachrin tide.

British ruul (1655–1962)[edit | edit suos]

Panish Toun ab di uolis kiatiijral fi di British kalanidem ina di Kiaribiyan. Di Panishdem eh fuosout bai di Ingglish a Rio Nuevo ina Sin Mieri. Ina 1655 di Ingglishdem, liid bai Sar Wiliam Pen (William Penn) ah Jinaral Raboert Venablz (Robert Venables), tekuoba di laas Panish fuot ina Jumieka. Di niem a Mantigo Bie, di kiapital a di parish a Sin Jiemz, koh frah di Panish name manteca bahía (ar Bie a Laad), frah di laad-mekin indoschri wa dide bies pah di pruosesin a di nof wail ag ina di ieria.

Ina 1660, di papilieshan a Jumieka eh bout 4,500 wait ah 1,500 blak, bot az oerli az di 1670 deh taim, blak piipl faam di majariti a di papilieshan.

Ina 1394, Frans blakout Juu frah koh lib ina deh konchri. Bai 1660, Jumieka bikomps rifiuj fi Juu ina di Nyuu Wol, azwel nof a dem weh get expel frah Spien ah Puotigal ron kom. Wah seklment a Juu eh kom aredi ina 1510, kuiktaim afta fi Krixtifa Kolombos (Christopher Columbus) son sekl pah di hailant. Muosli moerchant ah chrieda, di Juwish komiuniti eh fuos fi lib ah aid, a-kaal dehself "Puotigii". Afta di British tek uoba ruul fi Jumieka, di Juudem disaid se di besis difens gens Spien fi get bak kanchruol ena fi inkorij di kalani fi ton bies fi Kiaribiyan pairet. Wid di pairetdem setop a Puot Rayal di Panishdem udn tuu waah fi atak. Di British liidadem grii se disya chratiji wi wok fi kipwe outsaid buliraigin.

Wen di hIngglish kiapcha Jumieka ina 1655, di Panish kalanisdem ronwe afta deh don lego deh sliev. Di slievdem kiata go a mountn, jainop wid di Maruundem, demde uu eh exkiep langtaim frah di Panish fi lib wid di Taínodem. Di Jumiekan Maruundem eh fait di British juurin di 18t senchri. Di niem stil yuuz tide fi deh madoern disendant. Fi senchri juurin slievri taim, di Maruundem extablish frii komiuniti ina di mountn bush a Jumieka, we deh mentien deh friidam ah indipendans fi jinarieshan.

Juurin di fos 200 ier a British ruul, Jumieka eh wan a di wol liidn nieshan we expuot shuga mek chuu sliev lieba. Muo dah 77,000 ton a shuga projuus ebri ier bitwiin 1820 ah 1824. Afta di abolishan a di sliev chried ina 1807, di British impuot Indian ah Chaini woka az indencha saabant fi sopliment di lieba fuos. Nof a deh disendant kantiniu fi lib a Jumieka tide.

Bai di bignin a di 19t senchri, Jumieka dipendans pah sliev lieba ah plantieshan ikanami rizolt ina blak piipl outnomba wait piipl bai a riesho a almuos 20 tu 1. Alduo di UK eh outlaa di himpuotieshan a sliev, som eh stil smogl kom a di kalanidem. Wails dem a-plan fi abalish slievri, di British Paaliment paas soh laa fi himpruuv kandishan fi di slievdem. Deh ban wip frah yuuz ina fiil ah fi flag uman; deh mek di plaantadem nuo se deh fi lou di slievdem fi get Baibl-tiichin, ah wan frii die ebri wiik fi sel wa deh projuus, ah nomo Sundedie maakit so di slievdem kiah get fi gaa choch.

Di Ous a Asembli ina Jumieka bita di nyuu laa ah fait gens dem. Di Membadem (deh taim onggl Jumieka-Wait) kliem se di slievdem kantentid ah deh bex bout Paaliment intafierans ina di ailant bizniz. Di sliev uonadem fried se di slievdem uda railop ef deh iizop pah dem. Afta ribelian pah ribelian pah di ailant ah chienj-chienj atityuud ina Griet Britn, di British govament abalish slievri ofishal bai a 1833 ak, fi taat ina 1834, wid ful imansipieshan frah chakl slievri diklier ina 1838. Di papilieshan ina 1834 ena 371,070, outa dat 15,000 eh wait, 5,000 frii blak; 40,000 'kolad' ar mix ries; ah 311,070 sliev.

Ina di 19t senchri, di British extablish soh nomba a botanikal gyaadn. Dem ingkluud di Kiasltan Botanikal Gyaadn (Castleton Botanical Garden), divelop ina 1862 fi riplies di Baat Gyaadn (Bath Garden) (wa eh kriet ina 1779) we flodop-flodop noftaim. Baat Gyaadn ena di fos plies deh plaah bredfruut, kyaa kom a Jumieka frah di Pasifik bai Kiaptin Wiliam Blai (William Bligh). Ikuik ton regla provijan ina di ailant dayat. Adaels gyaadn ena di Singkuona Plantieshan (Cinchona Plantation), foun ina 1868, ah di Uop Gyaadn (Hope Gardens) foun ina 1874. Ina 1872, Kinston get dezigniet az di ailant kiapital.

Ina 1945, Sar Aris Ekta Oern (Horace Hector Hearne) ton Chiif Jostis ah Kipa fi di Rekaad ina Jumieka. Ih ed di Supriim Kuot, Kinston bitwiin 1945 ah 1950/1951. Ih muuv gaa Kenia, weni achiiv indipendans, we ih get apaint tu Chiif Jostis.

Indipendans (1962)[edit | edit suos]

Ischri a Jumieka

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Jumieka Indipendans

Jumieka likl bai likl get muo indipendans frah di Yunaitid Kingdam. Ina 1958, iton pravins ina di Fedarieshan a di Wes Indiz, wah fedarieshan mongx di British Wes Indiz. Jumieka get ful indipendans wen ilef di fedarieshan ina 1962.

Chrang ikanamik gruot, avrij bout 6% por anom, maak di fos ten ier a indipendans anda wan-wan kansoervativ govament anda di liidaship a Praim Minista Aligzanda Bostamanti (Alexander Bustamante), Danal Sangsta (Donald Sangster) ah Yuu Shiera (Hugh Shearer). Di gruot eh fyuil bai chrang praivit invesment ina baxait/alumina, tuurizam, maniufakchrin indoschri ah, no so moch tu dat, di agrikolchral sekta.

Di aptimizim a di fos deked eh kom wid muo ah muo sens a inikualiti, ah kansoern se di benifit a gruot nehna shier wid di oerban puo. Kombain wid di ifek a sluodong ina di gluobal ikanami ina 1970, di ilektaret muuv fi chienj govament, ah put di Piipl Nashinal Paati (People's National Party PNP) ina powa ina 1972. No kia umoch efoert fi kriet mou suoshal ekuitebl palisi ina edikieshan ah elt, Jumieka kantiniu fi laga-laga ikanamikali. Bai 1980, di gruos nashinal prodok eh jrap tu aal 25% biluo di 1972 lebl. Juu tu farin ah luokal det a-riez, marid wid bufo fiskal difisit, di gobament go luk Intanashinal Maniteri Fon (International Monetary Fund IMF) finansin frah di Yunaitid Stiet (United States) ah adaels. Di intanashinal bangkadem impuoz IMF aasteriti ruul (wid nofa dah 25% inchres riet po ier).

Ikanamik ditiiriorieshan kantiniu tel ina di mid-1980, mek wosa bai soertn tingz; di fos ah toerd bigis alumina projuusa, Alpart ah Alcoa, shetdong, ah prodokshan bai Alcan, di sekan bigis projuusa, jrap nof-nof. Pah tapa dat, tuurizam dikriis ah Reynolds Jamaica Mines, Ltd. lef di Jumiekan indoschri.

Indipendans, no mata umoch deh silibriet ina Jumieka, ina muo riisent ier kumop az tapik fi kantenshan. Ina 2011, waah soervie don shuo se apraximetli 60% a Jumiekan uda push faya fi ton British terichri agen; deh komplien bout ier pah ier a suoshal ah fiskal mismanijment ina di konchri.

Jaagrafi ah invairament[edit | edit suos]

Jumieka a di toerd bigis ailant ina di Kiaribiyan. Ijrap bitwiin latityuud 17° ah 19°N, ah langgityuud 76° ah 79°W. Mountn, inkluudn Bluu Mountn, daminiet di hinlan paat. Dem sorong bai wah naro kuostal lebl. Chiif tong ah siti ingkluud di kiapital Kinston (Kingston) pah di sout kuos, Puotmuo (Portmore), Panish Tong (Spanish Town), Mandivl (Mandeville), Uochi Rayas (Ocho Ríos), Puot Antuoni (Port Antonio), Nigril (Negril), ah Mantigo Bie (Montego Bay) pah di naat kuos.

Kinston Aaba (Kingston Harbour) a di sebnt-bigis nachral aaba ina di wol, wamek deh mek di siti di kiapital ina 1872.

Tuoris achrakshan ingkluud Donz Riva Faal (Dunn's River Falls) ina Sint An (St. Ann), YS Faal (YS Falls) ina Sint Ilizibet (St. Elizabeth), di Bluu Laguun (Blue Lagoon) ina Puotlan (Portland). Puot Rayal (Port Royal) ena di sait fi wah torobl oertkwiek ina 1692 we kaaz di ailant Palisiedoz (Palisadoes) fi faam.

Di klaimit ina Jumieka chrapikal, wid at ah yuumid weda, alduo aya hop inlan riijan plenti kuula. Som riijan pah di sout kuos, laka Liganii Plien (Liguanea Plain) ah Pijro Plien (Pedro Plains), muo jraya ina rien-sheda ieria.

Jumieka de ina di orikien belt a di Atlantik Uoshan ah sieka dis, di ailant somtaim get lik wid bofoto staam damij.[49] Orikien Chaali (Charlie) ah Gilboert (Gilbert) lik Jumieka dairek ina 1951 ah 1988, rispektivli, ah kaaz mieja damij ah nof det. Ina di 2000 (deked), orikien Aivan (Ivan), Diin (Dean), ah Gustav azwel kyaa sivier weda kom a di ailant.

Mongx di varayati a tireschrial, akuatik ah mariin ikosistim yu fain jrai ah wet laimstuon faris, rienfaris, ripierian udlan, wetlan, kiev, riba, siigraas bed ah karal riif. Di aatariti rekanaiz di zingkuma signifikans ah potenshal a di invairament ah dizigniet som a di muo 'fertile' ieria az 'protected'. Som a di ailant protek ieria inkluud di Kakpit Konchri (Cockpit Country), Elsha Ilz (Hellshire Hills), ah Lichfiil (Litchfield) faris rizoerv. Ina 1992, Jumieka fos mariin paak, pred uoba nieli 6 skwier mail (bout 15 km2), extablish ina Mantigo Bie. Puotlan Bait Protek Ieria (Portland Bight Protected Area) dizigniet ina 1999.

Di ier afta Bluu ah Jangkro Mountn Nashinal Paak (Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park) kriet outa rofli 300 skwier mail (780 km2) a wildanis, we supuot touzn pah touzn a chrii ah foern spiishiz ah rier animal.

Gobament ah palitix[edit | edit suos]

Jumieka a paalimenchri dimakrasi ah kanstityuushanal manaki, wid Kwiin Ilizibet II (Queen Elizabeth II) a-saab az di Jumiekan manak. Az Ilizibet II shier az ed a stiet fi fiftiin ada konchri ah rizaid muotaim ina di Yunaitid Kindom, so shi riprizent az Kwiin a Jumieka ina Jumieka ah a farin bai di Gobna-Jinaral a Jumieka.

Di gobna-jinaral get naminiet bai di Praim Minista a Jumieka ah di wuol Kiabinet ah apaint bai di manak. Aal memba a di Kiabinet apaint bai di gobna-jinaral pah di advais a di praim minista. Di manak ah di gobna-jinaral saab muosli sirimuonial ruol, outsaida soh rizaab powa fi yuuz ina soertn kanstityuushanal kraisis sitieshan.

Jumieka korant kanstityuushan eh jraaf ina 1962 bai wah baipaatizan jaint komitii a di Jumiekan lejisliecha. Ikom ina fuos wid di Jumieka Indipendans Ak, 1962 (Jamaica Independence Act, 1962) a di Yunaitid Kindom paaliment, we gi Jumieka indipendans.

Di Paaliment a Jumieka baikiamaral, kansis a di Ous a Riprizentitiv (Luowa Ous) ah di Senet (Opa Ous). Memba a di Ous (nuo az Memba a Paaliment ar MP) get ilek dairek, ah di memba a di Ous a Riprizentitiv uu, ina di gobna-jinaral bes jojment, iebl di bes fi komaan di kanfidens a di majariti a di membadem fi dat Ous, apaint bai di gobna-jinaral fi bi di praim minista. Senetadem get naminiet jaintli bai di praim minista ah di paalimenchri Liida a di Apozishan ah den apaint bai di gobna-jinaral.

Di korant Praim Minista a Jumieka a Anju Maikal Uolnis uu get inaagiuriet pah 3 Maach 2016. Praim Minista Uolnis ak az di Ed a Govament a Jumieka.

Politikal kolcha[edit | edit suos]

Jumieka chradishanal ab tuu-paati sistim, wid powa muotaim altiniet bitwiin di Piipl Nashinal Paati (People's National Party - PNP) ah di Jumieka Lieba Paati (Jamaica Labour Party - JLP). Di paati wid korant adminischrietiv ah lejislietiv powa a di PNP, wid tuu-tod paalimenchri majariti sens 2012. Azwel nof sumaala paati de bot non a dem no win no siit ina paaliment yet; di bigis wan a demya a di Nashinal Dimokratik Muuvment (National Democratic Movement - NDM).

Adminischrietiv divijan[edit | edit suos]

Jumieka brokop ina fuotiin parish. Di parishdem gruupop ina chrii istarik kounti, we no ab no adminischrietiv relivans: Kaanwal, Miglsex ah Sori.

Anuova Sint Ilizibet Sin Jiemz Chrilaani Wesmolan Klarindan Manchesta Sint An Sin Kiachrin Sin Mieri Kinston Parish Puotlan Sint Anju Sin TamasJamaica parishes numbered2.png
About this image
  Parish Saiz
km²
Papilieshan
Sensos 2001
Kiapital
Kaanwal Kounti
1 Anuova 450.4 67,037 Luusi
2 Sint Ilizibet 1,212.4 146,404 Blak Riva
3 Sin Jiemz 594.9 175,127 Mantigo Bie
4 Chrilaani 874.6 73,066 Falmot
5 Wesmolan 807.0 138,947 Savlamaar
Miglsex Kounti
6 Klarindan 1,196.3 237,024 Mie Pen
7 Manchesta 830.1 185,801 Mandivl
8 Sint An 1,212.6 166,762 Sint Anz Bie
9 Sin Kiachrin 1,192.4 482,308 Panish Tong
10 Sin Mieri 610.5 111,466 Puot Maraya
Sori Kounti
11 Kinston (parish) 21.8 96,052 Kinston
12 Puotlan 814.0 80,205 Puot Antuoni
13 Sint Anju 430.7 555,828 Aafwe Chrii
14 Sin Tamas 742.8 91,604 Morant Bie
  Jumieka 10,990.5 2,607,631 Kinston

Milichri[edit | edit suos]

Di Jumieka Difens Fuos, Jumieka (JDF) a di sumaal bot profeshanal milichri fuos a Jumieka. Di JDF bies pah di British milichri magl wid simila aaganizieshan, chrienin, wepan ah chradishan. Wans deh get chuuz, afisa kiandidet get sen tu wan a pempem British ar Kianiedian biesik afisa kuos dipen pah di aam a saabis. Inlis suoja get biesik chrienin a Op Paak Kiamp ar JDF Chrienin Depo, Nyuukiasl, buot ina Sint Anju. Sieh laka di British magl, Nan Komishan Afisa get waga-waga lebl a profeshanal chrienin so deh muuv op di rangx. Adishanal militchri skuul avielobl fi speshalti chrienin ina Kianada, di Yunaitid Stiet ah di Yunaitid Kindom.

Di JDF a dairek disendant frah di British Aami Wes India Rejiment we eh faam juurin di koluonial era.[34] Di Wes India Rejiment eh yuuz extensivli bai di British Empaya fi poliis di empaya frah 1795 tu 1926. Adaels yuunit ina di JDF eritij ingkluud di hoerli koluonial Jumieka Milisha, die Kinston Infanchri Valiuntier a Wol Waar I ah ryaaganaiz in di Jumiekan Infanchri Valiuntier ina Wol Waar II. Di Wes Indiz Rejiment eh rifaam ina 1958 az paat a di Wes Indiz Fedarieshan, ah afta disoluushan a di Fedarieshan deh extablish di JDF.

Di Jumieka Difens Fuos (JDF) kompraiz wah infanchri Rejiment ah Rizoerv Kuor, wah Ier Wing, wah Kuos Gyaad fliit ah wah supuotin Injinierin Yuunit.[35] Di infanchri rejiment kantien di 1s, 2n ah 3d (Nashinal Rizoerv) batalian. Di JDF Ier Wing divaid ina chrii flait yuunit, wah chrienin yuunit, wah supuot yuunit ah di JDF Ier Wing (Nashinal Rizoerv). Di Kuos Gyaad divaid bitwiin siigwain kruu ah supuot kruu we kandok maritaim siefiti ah maritaim laa infuosment azwel difens-rilietid aparieshan.[36]

Di ruol a di supuot batalian a fi provaid supuot fi buus nomba ina kombat ah ishiu kampitensi chrienin fi mek shuor a di redinis a di fuos.[37] Di 1s Injinier Rejiment eh faam juu tu ingkriis dimaan fi milichri injinier ah deh ruol a fi provaid injinierin saabis weneba ah eni ushpaat deh niid.[38] Di Edkwaata JDF kantien di JDF Komaanda, Komaan Staaf azwel Intelijens, Joj Advoket afis, Adminischrietiv ah Prokyuorment sekshan.[39]

Ina riisent ier deh kaal pah di JDF fi asis di nieshan poliis, di Jumieka Kanstabileri Fuos (JKF), fi fait jrog smoglin ah raizin kraim riet weh ingkluud wan a di ayis moerda riet ina di wol. JDF yuunit aktiv fi kandok aam pachruol wid di JKF ina ai-kraim ieria ah giang dischrik deh nuo bout. Piipl mekop nof niaz bouti azwel som supuot dis JDF ruol. Ina hoerli 2005, Apozishan liida, Edwad Siaga (Edward Seaga), kaal fi di moerja a di JDF ah JKF. Dis neh geda no supuot ina eida aaganizieshan nar mongx di majariti a sitizn.

Demografix[edit | edit suos]

Schriit a Mantigo Bie, Jumieka.

Etnik arijin[edit | edit suos]

Muos a di Jumiekan blak papiulieshan a Afrikan ar paashal Afrikan disent wid nof a dem iebl fi chries deh arijin tu Wes Afrika, azwel tu Yuurop ah Ieja. Nof mix Jumiekan self-ripuot az blak - siem laka nof ada anglofuon Kiaribiyan ailant. Jumieka mix papiulieshan a bout 6.1% a di nieshan.

Iejan faam di sekan bigis gruup ah inkluud Iis Indian ah Chaini.

Ina riistant ier, imigrieshan inkriis, a-kom mienli frah Chaina, Ieti, Kyuuba, Kolombia, ah Latn Amoerkan konchri; 20,000 Latn Amoerkan rizaid ina Jumieka. Bout 7,000 Amoerkan rizaid ina Jumieka, azwel az nof fos-jinarieshan Amoerkan, British ah Kianiedian wid Jumiekan disent.

Languij[edit | edit suos]

Di ofishal languij a Jumieka a Ingglish. Jumiekan praimerili spiik wah Ingglish-Afrikan Kryuol languij nuo az Jumiekan Kryuol ar Patwa, we nof a di wol nuo chuu di pred a Rege myuuzik. Jumiekan Patwa eh faam frah wah bies a mienli Ingglish wod wid eliment a rifaam grama, tugiada wid likl vokiabileri frah Afrikan langwij ah Nietiv Amoerkan wod. Soh aakiek fiicha riminisent a Airish Ingglish.

Emigrieshan[edit | edit suos]

Nof Jumiekan eh-emigriet tu ada konchri, espeshal tu di Yunaitid Kindom, di Yunaitid Stiet, ah Kianada. Ina di kies a di Yunaitid Stiet, bout 20,000 Jumiekan po ier get grantid poermanent rezidens. Di banz a Jumiekan wa lib a farin nuo az di Jumiekan dayaspora. Jumiekandem azwel emigriet go a Kyuuba. Di skiel a emigrieshan predout aal uoba di wol simila tu ada Kiaribiyan entiti laka Puoto Riiko, Gayana, ah di Ba'aamaz. Ieh estimiet ina 2004 se op tu 2.5 milian Jumiekan ah Jumiekan disendant lib a farin.

Kansenchrieshan a expachriet Jumiekan de pempem ina wuoliip a siti ina di Yunaitid Stiet, ingkluudn Nyuu Yaak Siti (New York City), Bofalo (Buffalo), di Mayami (Miami) mechro ieria, Atlanta, Chikaago (Chicago), Aalando (Orlando), Tampa, Washintan (Washington), D.C., Filidelfia (Philadelphia), Aatfod (Hartford), Pravidens (Providence) ah Las Anjiliiz (Los Angeles). Jumiekan ina di Yunaitid Kindom nomba estimiet a 800,000 so mek dem di bigis Afrikan-Kiaribiyan gruup fi da konchri. Waga-waga maigrieshan frah Jumieka tu di UK gwaan praimerili ina di 1950 ah 1960 (wen di konchri eh stil anda British ruul). Jumiekan komiuniti egzis ina muos laaj UK siti. Ina Kianada, di Jumiekan papilieshan senta ina Taranto (Toronto), ah sumaala komiuniti de ina siti laka Amiltan (Hamilton), Manchryaal (Montreal), Vangkuuva (Vancouver) ah Atawa (Ottawa).

Kraim[edit | edit suos]

Jumieka eh ab wan a di ayis moerda riet ina di wol fi nof ier, askaadn tu UN estimet.[63][64] Soh ieria a Jumieka, espeshal siti laka Kinston, expiirians ai lebl a kraim ah voilens.[65] Nof Jumiekan astail tuwadz LGBT ah intasex piipl.[66] Sieka wuoliip a mab atak gens gie piipl wa get repuot,[67][68][69] yuuman-raits gruup kaal Jumieka "the most homophobic place on earth."[70]

Rilijan[edit | edit suos]

Kristianiti a di rilijan wid di bigis falarin ina Jumieka. Pratistant faam di majariti ina di konchri wid wah sumaal Ruoman Kiaklik mainariti. Askaadn tu di 2001 sensos, di konchri laajis dinaminieshan a di Choch a Gad (24% a di papilieshan), Sebm-die Adventis Choch (11%), Pentikastal (10%), Baptis (7%), Angglikan (4%), Ruoman Kiaklik (2%), Yunaitid Choch (2%), Metodis (2%), Morievian (1%) ah Plimot Brejrin (1%) Di Kristian fiet gien axeptans az British Kristian abalishanis ah Baptis mishineridem jain edikietid faama sliev ina di schrogl gens slievri.

Di Rastafarai muuvment ab 29,026 adierent, askaadn tu di 2011 sensos, wid 25,325 Rastafarai miel ah 3,701 Rastafarai fiimiel. Adaels rilijan ina Jumieka ingkluud Jyuova Wiknis (2% papilieshan), di Ba'ai fiet, we kount maitbi 8,000 adierent[79] ah 21 Luokal Spirichual Asembli, Budizim, ah Induizim. Wah sumaal papilieshan a Juu de, bout 200 a dem we diskraib demself az Libaral-Kansoervativ.[82] Die fos Juudem ina Jumieka kiah chries deh ruut bak tu hoerli 15t senchri Spien ah Puortigal. Adaels sumaal gruup ingkluud Muzlim, uu kliem 5,000 adierent, siem so di Maamandem.

Edikieshan[edit | edit suos]

Di imansipieshan a di slievdem kyaa widi di extablishment a di Jumiekan edikieshan sistim fi di masiv. Praya tu imansipieshan onggl wan ah tuu skuul de fi edkiet luokal piipl. Nof smadi sen deh pitni gaa Ingglant fi akses beta kualiti edikieshan.

Afta imansipieshan di Wes Indian Komishan grant wah amount a moni fi extablish Elimenchri Skuul, nou nuo az Aal Iej Skuul. Muos a demya skuul eh extablish bai the chochdem.[100] Dis wena di jenisis a di madoern Jumiekan skuul sistim.

Prezentli di falarin kiatigari a skuul egzis:

  • Oerli chailud – Biesik, Infant ah praivit-apariet prii-skuull. Iej kuohaat: 2 – 5 ier.
  • Praimri – Poblik ah praivit-uon (Praivit-uon deh kaal Preparachri Skuul). Iej 3 – 12 ier.
  • Sekanderi – Poblik ah praivit-uon. Iej 10 – 19 ier. Ai skuul ina Jumieka kiah bi aida singl-sex ar kuo-edikieshanal instityuushan, ah nof skuul fala di chradishanal Ingglish grama skuul magl yuuz rait chuu di British Wes Indiz.
  • Toershari – Komiuniti Kalij, Tiicha Kalij wid Maiko Tiicha Kalij (nou Maiko Yunivoersiti Kalij) di oulis wan foun ina 1836, Shaatud Tiicha Kalij (we wantaim ena aal-fiimiel tiicha chrienin instityuushan), Vokieshanal Chrienin Senta, Kalij ah Yunivoersiti – Poblik ah praivit-uon. Deh ab faib luokal yunivoersiti niemli: Di Yunivoersiti a di Wes Indiz (Muona Kiampos); di Yunivoersiti a Teknalaji, Jumieka fostaim Di Kalij a Aat, Sayans ah Teknalaji (KAST); di Nadoern Kiaribiyan Yunivoersiti fostaim Wes Indiz Kalij; di Yunivoersiti Kalij a di Kiaribiyan ah di Intanashinal Yunivoersiti a di Kiaribiyan.

Pah tap a dat, deh ab nof komiuniti ah tiicha chrienin kalij.

Kolcha[edit | edit suos]

Myuuzik[edit | edit suos]

Alduo a wah sumaal likl nieshan, Jumiekan kolcha ab chrang-chrang gluobal prezens. Di myuuzikal jahra rege, skia, mento, rakstedi, dob, ah, muo lietli, dansaal ah raga a wuola dem arijiniet ina di ailant vaibrant, papila oerban rikaadn indoschri. Jumieka azwel plie impuotant ruol ina di divelopment a pongk rak, chuu rege ah skia. Rege azwel influens Amoerkan rap myuuzik, kaa deh shier di siem ruut az ridmik, Afrikan stail a myuuzik. Soh rapa, laka Di Notuorios B.I.G. (The Notorious B.I.G.) ah Ebi D (Heavy D), koh frah Jumiekan disent. Intanashinali nuo rege myuuzishan Bab Maali (Bob Marley) ena Jumiekan tu.

Nof adaels intanashional nuo aatis eh baan ina Jumieka, ingkluudn Mili Sumaal (Millie Small), Lii "Krach" Peri (Lee "Scratch" Perry), Gregri Aizax (Gregory Isaacs), Aaf Paint (Half Pint), Protojie (Protoje), Piita Toch (Peter Tosh), Boni Wiela (Bunny Wailer), Big Yuut (Big Youth), Jimi Klif (Jimmy Cliff), Denis Brong (Dennis Brown), Dezman Deka (Desmond Dekker), Beris Aman (Beres Hammond), Biini Man (Beenie Man), Shagi (Shaggy), Gries Juonz (Grace Jones), Shaba Rangx (Shabba Ranks), Siupa Kiat (Super Cat), Buju Bantan (Buju Banton), Shaan Paal (Sean Paul), I Wien (I Wayne), Bounti Kila (Bounty Killer) ah nof muo. Ban-aatis gruup we koh frah Jumieka ingkluud Blak Uhuru (Black Uhuru), Toerd Woerl Ban (Third World Band), Ina Soerkl (Inner Circle), Chalis Rege Ban (Chalice Reggae Band), Kolcha (Culture), Fab Faib (Fab Five) ah Maagan Eritij (Morgan Heritage). Di jahra jongl kumout a Landan Jumiekan dayaspora. Di boert a ip-ap ina Nyuu Yaak Siti uo wuoliip tu di siti Jumiekan komiuniti.

Lichicha[edit | edit suos]

Ian Flemin (Ian Fleming), uu eh lib a Jumieka, ripiit ah ripiit fi yuuz di ailant az di setn a ih Jiemz Ban (James Bond) navldem, ingkluudn Lib ah Lou fi Ded (Live and Let Die), Dakta Nuwo (Doctor No), Onggl Fi Fiyu Yaidem (For Your Eyes Only), Di Man wid di Guolin Gon (The Man with the Golden Gun), Aktapusi (Octopussy) ah Di Libn Dielait (The Living Daylights). Pah tapa dat, Jiemz Ban yuuz Jumieka-bies kova ina Kiasiino Rayal (Casino Royale). Tel nou, di onggl Jiemz Ban flim adaptieshan we set ina Jumieka a Dakta Nuwo. Flimin fi di fikshanal ailant a San Moniik (San Monique) ina Lib ah Lou fi Ded eh du ina Jumieka.

Di joernalis ah aata H. G. Dilisa (H. G. de Lisser) (1878–1944) yuuz ih nietiv konchri az di setn fi ih nof navl. Baan a Falmot, Dilisa wok az ripuota fi di Jumieka Taimz (Jamaica Times) wen ih yong ah ina 1920 ih bigin poblish di magaziin Plaanta Ponch (Planters' Punch). Di Wait Wich a Ruozaal (White Witch of Rosehall) a wan a ih bes nuo navl. Ih eh niem Anareri Prezident a di Jumiekan Pres Asuosieshan; ih wok chuwout ih profeshanal karier fi promuot di Jumiekan shuga indoschri.

Maalan Jiemz (Marlon James) (1970), a navlis we poblish chrii navl: Kiangkro Debl (John Crow's Devil) (2005), Di Buk a Nait Uman (The Book of Night Women) (2009) ah Wah Briif Ischri a Sebm Kilin (A Brief History of Seven Killings) (2014), wina a di 2015 Man Buka Praiz (Man Booker Prize).

Flim[edit | edit suos]

Di sinima akta Eral Flin (Errol Flynn) lib wid ih tod waif Pachriis Waimuor (Patrice Wymore) ina Puot Antuoni ina di 1950z. Ih elp divelop tuurizam tu dis ieria, bai papiularaiz chrip dong di Raya Grandi Riba pah bambu raaf.[85] Afta ih det, ih waif kantiniu lib a Puotlan a-manij deh plantieshan tel fi ar uon det ina 2014.

Jumieka ab lang ischri ina di flim indoschri diet bak frah die hoerli 1960z. Wah luk pah dilingkuent yuut ina Jumieka prizent ina di 1970z myuuzikal craim flim Di Aada Deh Kom (The Harder They Come), staarin Jimi Klif (Jimmy Cliff) az wah froschrietid (ah saikopatik) rege myuuzishan uu disend ina moerdaros kraim sprii. Di Amoerkan flim Kaktiel (Cocktail) (1988), staarin Taam Kruuz (Tom Cruise), a wan a di muo papila flim fi dipik Jumieka. Aneda papila Jumieka-bies flim a di 1993 Dizni (Disney) kamedi Kuul Roninz (Cool Runnings), we luusli bies pah di chuu tuori a Jumieka fos babsled tiim a-chrai fi meki ina di Winta Olimpix.

Fuud[edit | edit suos]

Di ailant fiemos fii Jumiekan joerk siiznin, we intigral tu Jumiekan kuiziin. Jumieka a yaad fi Red Schraip bier ah Jumiekan Bluu Mountn Kaafi.

Spuots[edit | edit suos]

Spuots a intigral paat a nashinal laif ina Jumieka ah di ailant atliitdem ten fi pofaam tu standad wel aya dah wa enibadi maita aadineri expek frah soch a sumaal konchri. Wails di muos papila luokal spuots a krikit, pah di intanashinal stiej Jumiekan ten fi du muo dah wel ina chrak ah fiil atletix.

Jumieka projuus som a di wol muos fiemos krikita, ingkluudn Jaaj Edli (George Headley), Kuotni Walsh (Courtney Walsh), ah Maikal Uoldin (Michael Holding).[89] Di konchri wena wan a di venyuu fi 2007 Krikit Wol Kop ah di Wes Indiiz krikit tiim a wan a 10 ICC ful memba tiim we patisipiet ina intanashinal Tes krikit.[90] Di Jumieka nashinal krikit tiim kompiit riijanali, ah provaid plieya fi di Wes Indiiz tiim tu. Sabaina Paak a di onggl Tes venyuu ina di ailant, bot di Griinfiil Stiediom yuuz tu fi krikit.[91][92] Kris Giel (Chris Gayle) a di muos rinoun batsman frah Jumieka korantli a-riprizent di Wes Indiiz krikit tiim.

Sens indipendans Jumieka kansistent projuus wol klaas atliit ina chrak ah fiil.[87] Ina Jumieka invalvment ina atletix bigin a yong-yong iej ah muos ai skuul mentien rigaros atletix pruogram wid deh tap atliitdem a-kompiit ina nashinal kampitishan (espeshali di VMBS Gial ah Bwai Atletix Champianship) ah nof intanashinal miit (muos nuotebl di Pen Rilie (Penn Relays)). Ina Jumieka ikaman fi yong atliit get pres kovrij ah nashinal bigop lang bifuo deh araiv pah di intanashinal atletix stiej.

Uoba di paas six deked Jumieka projuus dozn a wol klaas sprinta ingkluudn Olimpik ah Wol Champian Yusien Buolt (Usain Bolt), wol rekaad uola ina di 100m fi man a 9.58s, ah 200m fi man a 19.19s. Ada nuotwoerdi Jumiekan sprinta ingkluud Aata Wint (Arthur Wint) – di fos Jumiekan Olimpik Guol Medalis, Danal Kuari (Donald Quarrie) – Olimpik Champian ah faama 200m wol rekaad uola, Rai Antuoni Brij (Roy Anthony Bridge), paat a di Intanashinal Olimpik Komiti, Moerliin Ati (Merlene Ottey), Deloriin Enis-Landan (Delloreen Ennis-London), Sheli-An Frieza-Prais (Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce) – di korant Wol ah Olimpik 100m Champian, Keran Styuat (Kerron Stewart), Aliin Bieli (Aleen Bailey), Julet Kotboert (Juliet Cuthbert), Vranika Kiambl-Brong (Veronica Campbell-Brown), Sheruon Simsn (Sherone Simpson), Brijit Fasta-Iltan (Brigitte Foster-Hylton), Yuo'an Bliek (Yohan Blake), Oerb Makinli (Herb McKenley), Jaaj Ruodn (George Rhoden) — Olimpik Guol Medalis, Dion Eminz (Deon Hemmings) – Olimpik Guol Medalis, azwel faama 100m wol rekaad uola ah 2x 100m Olimpik fainalis ah Guol medal wina ina di man 2008 Olimpik 4 × 100m Asafa Powil (Asafa Powell).

Jumieka projuus wuolip a wol klaas amata ah profeshanal boxa tu, ingkluudn Chreva Boerbik (Trevor Berbick) ah Maik Makalom (Mike McCallum). Fos-jinarieshan Jumiekan atliit kantiniu fi mek signifikant impak pah di spuot intanashinali, espeshal ina di Yunaitid Kindom we di lis a tap British baxa baan ina Jumieka ar ab Jumiekan pierans ingkluud Laid Onigan (Lloyd Honeyghan), Kris Yubangk (Chris Eubank), Aadli Arisn (Audley Harrison), Dievid Ie (David Haye), Lenax Luwis (Lennox Lewis) ah Frangk Bruuno (Frank Bruno).

Adaels papila spuot ina Jumieka a asuosieshan futbaal ah aas-riesn. Di nashinal futbaal tiim eh kualifai fi di 1998 FIFA Wol Kop.

Di Jumieka nashinal babsled tiim eh wantaim siiros kantenda ina di Winta Olimpix, wen deh biitout nof wel-extablish tiim. Ches ah baskitbaal waidli plie ina Jumieka ah get supuot frah di Jumieka Ches Fedarieshan (JCF) ah di Jumieka Baskitbaal Fedarieshan (JBF), rispektivli. Netbaal veri papila pah di ailant tu, wid di Jumieka nashinal netbaal tiim deh kaal Di Sonshain Gialdem kansistentli rangkin ina di tap faib ina di wol.[93]

Di Jumieka nashinal rogbi liig tiim mekop a plieya uu plie ina Jumieka, ah YK-plieya frah profeshanal ah semi profeshanal tiim ina di YK.[94] Deh fos intanashanal ena 37–22 laas tu di Yunaitid Stiet nashinal rogbi liig tiim ina Novemba 2009.[95] Rogbi liig ina Jumieka a-gruo wid yunivoersiti ah ai skuul a-tekop di spuot.[96][97] Di JRLA Champianship a di mien rogbi liig kampitishan ina di konchri.[98] Di Orikien Rogbi Liig a profeshanal rogbi liig tiim uu a-uop fi kompiit ina eida di USA Rogbi Liig ar di AMNRL bai 2013 juurin wa taim deh wi chrien yong plieya iej 14–19 uu ago bi paat a di Orikin RL Akiademi ina uop fi divelop ina ful-taim profeshanal plieya.

Askaadn tu ESPN, di ayis pie Jumiekan profeshanal atliit ina 2011 ena Jostin Maastasn (Justin Masterson), staatin picha fi di Kliivlan Indian (Cleveland Indians).

Ikanami[edit | edit suos]

Jumieka a mix ikanami wid buot stiet entapraiz ah praivit sekta bizniz. Mieja sekta a di Jumiekan ikanami ingkluud agrikolcha, mainin, manifakchrin, tuurizam, ah finanshal ah inshuorans saabis. Tuurizam ah mainin a di liidn oerna fi farin exchienj. Aaf a di Jumiekan ikanami rilai pah saabis, wid di eda aaf a inkom a-kom frah saabis laka tuurizam. Estimiet se 1.3 milian farin tuuris visit Jumieka ebri ier.

Wid supuot bai moltilataral finanshal instityuushan, Jumieka sens di hoerli 1980z, eh siik fi impliment schrokcharal rifaam wid di iem fi fasta praivit sekta aktiviti ah ingkriis di ruol a maakit fuos ina rizuos alokieshan. Sens 1991, di gobament eh fala wah pruogram a ikanamik libaralaizieshan ah stiebilaizieshan bai rimuuv exchienj kanchuol, fluot di exchienj riet, kot tarif, stiebilaiz di Jumiekan koransi, rijuus inflieshan ah rimuuv rischrikshan pah farin invesment. Emfasis eh plies pah mentien schrik fiskal disiplin, grieta opinis tu chried ah finanshal fluo, maakit libaralaizieshan ah ridokshan ina di saiz a gobament. Juurin dis piiriad, bufo shier a di ikanami weh ritoern tu praivit sekta uonaship chuu daivesment ah praivitaizieshan pruogram.

Di makroikanamik stiebilaizieshan program inchajuus ina 1991, we fuokos pah tait fiskal ah maniteri palisi kanchribiut tu kanchuol ridokshan ina di riet a inflieshan. Di anyual inflieshan riet dikriis frah ai riet a 80.2% ina 1991 tu 7.9% ina 1998. Inflieshan fi FI1998/99 wena 6.2% kompier tu 7.2% ina di karispandin piiriad ina CUU1997/98. Di Gobament a Jumieka rimien komitid tu luowa inflieshan, wid lang-toerm abjektiv fi bringi ina lain wid fii mieja chriedn paadna riet.

Afta piiriad a stedi gruot frah 1985 tu 1995, riil GDP dikriis bai 1.8% ah 2.4% ina 1996 ah 1997, rispektivli. Di dikriis ina GDP ina 1996 ah 1997 eh muosli juu tu signifikant prablem ina di finanshal sekta ah, ina 1997, sivier ailant-waid jrout (die wosis ina 70 ier) we jrastikali rijuus agrikolcharal prodokshan. Ina 1997, naminal GDP ena apraximetli J$220,556.2 milian (US$6,198.9 milian bies pah di avrij anyual exchienj riet a di piiriad).

Di ikanami ina 1997 eh maak bai luo lebl a impuot gruot, ai lebl a praivit kiapital influo ah relitiv stabiliti ina di farin exchienj maakit.

Riisent ikanamik pofaamans shuo se di Jumiekan ikanami a-rikova. Agrikolcharal prodokshan, wah impuotant injin a gruot ingkriis 15.3% ina di toerd kwaata a 1998 kompier tu di karispandin piiriad ina 1997, signal a di fos pazitiv gruot riet ina di sekta sens Janiweri 1997. Baxait ah alumina prodokshan ingkriis 5.5% frah Janiweri tu Disemba, 1998 kompier tu di karispandin piiriad ina 1997. Fi Janiweri baxait prodokshan rikaad 7.1% ingkriis relitiv tu Janiweri 1998 ah Alcoa plan fi kantiniu expanshan a alumina prodokshan chuu 2009.[104] Jumieka a di fif laajis expuota a baxait ina di wol, afta Aschrielia, Chaina, Brazil ah Gini. Tuurizam, we a di laajis farin exchienj oerna, shuo impruuvment azwel. Ina di toerd kwaata a 1998, gruot ina tuuris araival axelariet wid uovaraal ingkriis a 8.5% ina tuurizam oerninz ina 1998 wen ikompier tu di karispandin piiriad ina 1997. Jumieka agrikolcharal expuot a shuga, banaana, kaafi, rom, ah yam.

Jumieka ab pempem varayati a indoschrial ah kamoershal aktiviti. Di ievieshan indoschri iebl fi pofaam muos ruutiin ierkraaf mentenans, exep fi ebi schrokcharal ripier. Wuoliip a teknikal supuot de fi chanspuot ah agrikolcharal ievieshan. Jumieka ab waga-waga amount a indoschrial injinierin, lait manifakchrin, ingkluudn metal fabrikieshan, metal ruufin, ah fonicha manifakchrin. Fuud ah bebrij pruosesin, glaaswier manifakchrin, saafwier ah dieta pruosesin, printin ah poblishin, inshuorans andaraitn, myuusik ah rikaadin, ah advans edikieshan aktiviti kiah fain ina di laaja oerban ieriadem. Di Jumiekan kanschrokshan indoschri fuli self-sofishant, wid profeshanal teknikal standad ah gaidans.

Sens di fos kuaata a 2006, di ikanami a Jumieka expiiriens a piiriad a staanch gruot. Wid inflieshan fi di 2006 kialenda ier dong tu 6.0% ah anemplaiment dong tu 8.9%, di naminal GDP gruo bai a anpresidentid 2.9%.[106] Wah invesment pruogram ina ailant chanspuotieshan ah yutiliti infrachrokcha ah gien ina di tuurizam, mainin, ah saabis sekta aal kanchribiut dis figa. Aal projekshan fi 2007 shuo iibn aya potenshal fi iknamik gruot wid aal estimet uoba 3.0% ah krampop onggl bai oerban kraim ah poblik palisi.

Ina 2006, Jumieka eh bikomz paat a di KIARIKOM Singgl Maakit ah Ikanami az wan a di payanierin memba.

Di gluobal ikanamik tondong eh ab signifikant impak pah di Jumiekan ikanami fi di ier 2007 tu 2009, we rizolt ina negitiv ikanamik gruot. Di govament impliment wah nyuu Det Manijment Inishitiv, di Jumieka Det Exchienj (JDX) pah 14 Janiweri 2010. Di inishitiv wuda si uolda a Govament a Jumieka (GAJ) ban ritoern di ai inchres oernin inschrument fi ban wid luowa yiil ah langga machyuoriti. Di aafa eh tekop bai uoba 95% a luokal finanshal instityuushan ah govament kansida se a sokses. Chuu di sokses a di JDX pruogram, di Bruus Guolin (Bruce Golding) govament eh soksesful fi enta ina baara arienjment wid di IMF pah 4 Febiweri 2010 fi di amount a US$1.27b. Di luon agriiment a fi a piiriad a chrii ier.

Ina Iepril 2014, die Govament a Jumieka ah Chaina sain di prilimineri agriiment fi di fos fiez a di Jumiekan Lajistix Ob (JLO) - di inishitiv we iem fi pozishan Kinston az di fuot nuod ina di gluobal lajistix chien, wa jain Ratadam, Dubai ah Singgapuor, fi saab die Amoerkaz.[108] Di Prajek, wen idon, expek fi provaid nof jab fi Jumiekan, Ikanamik Zuon fi moltinashinal kompni[109] ah wel niid ikanamik gruot fi aliviet di konchri ebi det-tu-GDP riesho. Schrik adierens tu di IMF rifinansin pruogram ah preparieshan fi di JLO saab fi buusop Jumieka kredit rietin ah outluk frah di chrii bigis rietin iejensi.

Infrachokcha[edit | edit suos]

Chanspuot[edit | edit suos]

Aaf We Chrii Chanspuot Senta, Kinston, Jumieka

Di chanspuot infrachokcha ina Jumieka kansis a ruodwie, rielwie ah ier chanspuot, wid ruodwie faam di bakbuon a di ailant intoernal chanspuot sistim.

Ruodwie[edit | edit suos]

Di Jumiekan ruod netwoerk kansis a nieli 21,000 kilamiita (13,000 mail) a ruod, wid uoba 15,000 kilamiita (9,300 mail) a dat piev. Di Jumiekan Govament, sens di liet 1990z ah ina koaparieshan wid praivit investa, embaak pan a kiampien a infrachokcharal impruuvment prajek, prajek we ingkluud di krieshan a sistim a friiwie, di fos kaina akses-kanchuol ruodwie a da taip pah di ailant, fi kanekop di mien papilieshan sentadem a di ailant. Dis prajek op tel nou don finish 33 kilamiita (21 mail) a friiwie.

Rielwie[edit | edit suos]

Rielwie ina Jumieka no huol di praminent pozishan agen laka fos taim, sens deh muosli riplies bai ruodwie az di praimri miinz a chanspuot. Kansida se rielwie kanschrok a Jumieka frah 1845, di fos rielwie lain fi opn tu chrafik outsaida Yuurop ah Naat Amoerka. Outa di 272 kilamiita (169 mail) a rielwie fain ina Jumieka, onggl 57 kilamiita (35 mail) stil ina aparieshan korantli, onggl yuuz fi chanspuot baxait.

Pah 13 April 2011, limitid pasinja saabis rizyuum bitwiin Mie Pen, Panish Tong ah Linstid bot ishetdong agen ina Aagos 2012.

Ier chanspuot[edit | edit suos]

Jumieka ab chrii intanashinal ierpuot wid madoern toerminal, lang ronwie ah di navigieshan ikuipment rikuaya fi akamadiet di aastierin jet ierkraaf we yuuz ina madoern ier chrabl: Naaman Manli Intanashinal Ierpuot ina Kinston, Ian Flemin Intanashinal Ierpuot ina Baskobel, Sin Mieri Parish, ah di ailant laajis ah bizies ierpuot, Sar Danal Sangsta Intanashinal Ierpuot ina di rizaat siti a Mantigo Bie. Naaman Manli ah Sangsta Intanashinal ierpuot wena ob fi di konchri nashinal ierlain, Ier Jumieka bit inaa ron agen sens 2015. Deh ab luokal komyuuta ierpuot tu a Tinsn Pen (Kinston), Puot Antuoni, ah Nigril we kieta tu onggl intoernal flait. Nof ada praivit fiil pah shuga estiet ar baxait main saab di sumaal, ruural sentadem.

Puot, shipin ah laitous[edit | edit suos]

Juu tu ou ilokiet ina di Kiaribiyan Sii ina di shipin lien tu di Panamaa Kianal ah relitiv praximiti tu di laaj Naat Amoerkan maaakit ah imoerjin maaket ina Latn Amoerka, Jumieka angl nof kantiena chrafik. Di kantiena toerminal a di Puot a Kinston go chuu singkuma expanshan a kiapasiti ina riisant ier fi angl gruot buot riilaiz aredi azwel az wa projek fi di komin ierdem.[110] Mantigo Friipuot ina Mantigo Bie azwel angl difrah-difrah taip a kaago laka (duo imuo limitid dah) di Puot a Kinston, mienli agrikolcharal prodok.

Nof adaels puot pozishan rong di aislant, ingkluudn Puot Eskuivel ina Sin Kiachrin (WINDALCO), Raki Paint ina Klarindan, Puot Kaiza ina Sint Ilizibet, Puot Ruodz ina Diskovri Bie, Renalz Pier ina Uochi Rayos, ah Bounbruk Puot ina Puot Antuoni.

Fi ied di navigieshan a shipin, Jumieka apariet nain laitous.

Enaji[edit | edit suos]

Jumieka dipen pah pichruoliom impuot fi satisfai inashinal enaji niid.[1] Nof tes sait eh expluor fi ail, bot no kamoershal vayabl kuantiti no fain. Di muos kanviinient suos a impuotid ail ah moto fyuil (diizl, giasaliin, ah jet fyuil) a frah Mexiko ah Venizuela.

Fi Jumieka ilekchrikal powa projuus bai diiizl (bongka ail) jinarieta lokiet ina Uol Aaba. Adaels sumaala powa stieshan (muos a dem uon bai di Jumieka Poblik Saabis Kompni – fi di ailant ilekchriksiti provaida) supuot di ailant ilekchrikal grid ingkluudn di Onts Bie Powa Stieshan, di Buog Powa Steshan, di Rakfuot Powa Stieshan ah soh sumaal aijroilekchrik plaant pah di Wait Riba, Raya Byuuna, Morant Riba, Blak Riba (Magati) ah Ruorin Riba. Wah win faam, uon bai di Pichruoliom Kaaparieshan a Jumieka, eh extablish a Wigtan, Manchesta.

Jumieka eh soksesful fi apariet wah SLOWPOKE-2 nyuuklier riakta a 20 kW kiapasiti sens di hoerli 1980z, bot no muo plan no de fi expan nyuuklier powa fi nou.

Jumieka impuot apraximetli 80,000 baril (13,000 m3) a ail enaji prodok po die,[111] ingkluudn asfalt ah lubrikieshan prodok. Onggl 20% a impuotid fyuil yuuz fi ruod chanspuotieshan, di res a it yuuz bai di baxait indoschri, ilekchriksiti jinarieshan, ah ievieshan.

Jumieka projuus singkuma kuantiti a aijros etanal (5% waata kantent), fieba se muos a it kansyuum az bebrij, ah non a it no yuuz as moto fyuil. Fasiliti egzis fi rifain aijros etanal fiidstak ina anaijros etanal (0% waat kantent), bot di pruoses luk laka sei anikanamik fi nou ah di fasiliti lakdong aigl.

Waata soplai ah sanitieshan[edit | edit suos]

Waata soplai ah sanitieshan kiaraktaraiz bai ai lebl a axes tu himpruuv waata suos, wails axes tu sofishant sanitieshan tan a onggl 80%. Dis sitieshan afek espeshal di puo, ingkluudn di oerban puo nof a uu lib ina di uoba 595 anplan skuata seklment ina di konchri ina anelti ah ansaniteri invairanment wid ai rix a waatakyaa diziiz. No kia di nomba a palisi piepa we eh mienli fuokos pah waata soplai ah no mata umuch-umuch prajek get fon bai extoernal duona, ingkriis ina axes tan limitid siem wie (1% fi waata ah 5% fi sanitieshan bitwiin 1990 ah 2004). Di rispansibiliti fi waata ah sanitieshan palisi widin di gobament res wid di Minischri a Waata ah Ouzn, ah di mien saabis provaida a di Nashinal Waata Komishan. Wah aatanamos regiulietari iejensi, di Afis a Yutiliti Regiulieshan, apruuv tarif ah extablish taagit fi ifishensi ingkriis.

Komiunikieshan[edit | edit suos]

Jumieka gat fuli dijital telifuon komiunikieshan sistim wid mobail penichrieshan a uoba 95%. Di konchri chrii mobail aparieta – Kiebl ah Wayales (Cable and Wireless)(maakit az LIME – Lanlain, Intanet, Mobail ah Entatienment), Dijisel (Digicel), ah Uoshanik Dijital (Oceanic Digital) (apariet az MiPhone ah nou nuo az Claro sens liet 2008) – eh spen milian pah milian ina netwoerk opgried ah expanshan. Buot Dijisel ah Uoshanik Dijital eh grant laisn ina 2001 fi apariet mobail saabis ina di nyuu libaralaiz telikom maakit we wantaim yuus fi bi di domien a di dege ingkombent Kiebl ah Wayales manapoli. Dijicel pik di muo waidli yuuz GSM wayales sistim, wails Oceanic go wid di CDMA standad. Kiebl ah Wayales, we eh bigin wid TDMA standad, sobsikuent opgried tu GSM, ah korantli yutilaiz buot standad pah inetwoerk.

Wid wayales yuusij a-ingkriis, lanlain soplai bai Kiebl ah Wayales rijuus frah dis uoba aaf milian tu rofli bout chrii onjrid touzn bai 2006. Fi chrai grab muo maakit shier, Kiebl ah Wayales riisentli [wen?] laanch wah nyuu lanlain saabis kaal UomFuon Priipie (HomeFone Prepaid) we uda lou kostamaz fi pie fi minit deh yuuz muo beta dah fi pie set montli fii fi saabis, komiin laka priipie wayales saabis.

Wah nyuu enchrant tu di Jumieka komiunikieshan maakit, Fluo Jumieka (Flow Jamaica), lie nyuu sobmariin kiebl fi kanek Jumieka tu di Yunaitid Stiet. Dis nyuu kiebl ingkriis di tuotal nomba a sobmariin kiebl we a-kanek Jumieka tu di res a di wol tu fuo. Tuu muo laisn eh aakshan bai di Jumiekan gobament fi provaid mobail saabis pah di ailant, ingkluudn wan we eh uon fostaim bai AT&T Wayales (AT&T Wireless) bot neh yutilaiz, ah wan nyuu laisn.

Bibliografi[edit | edit suos]

  • Ammar, N. From Whence they came. The Jamaica Journal.
  • Bahadur, Gaiutra. Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. The University of Chicago (2014) ISBN 978-0-226-21138-1
  • Hall, D. Bounties European Immigration with Special Reference of the German Settlement at Seaford Town, Parts 1 and 2. Jamaica Journal, 8, (4), 48–54 and 9 (1), 2–9.
  • Jacobs, H. P. (2003). Germany in Jamaica. Indian heritage in Jamaica. The Jamaica Journal, 10, (2,3,4), 10–19,
  • Mullally, R. (2003). "One Love' The Black Irish of Jamaica. The Jamaica Journal, 42, pp. 104–116.
  • Parboosingh, I. S. An Indo-Jamaica beginning in The Jamaica Journal, 18, (3), 2–10, 12.
  • Barry Floyd (1979) Jamaica: An Island Microcosm, Macmillan.
  • Douglas Hall. Free Jamaica, 1838-1865: An Economic History. Yale University Press. 1959. 290pp.
  • Anthony Harriott (editor). Understanding Crime in Jamaica: New Challenges for Public Policy. University of the West Indies Press. 2003. 239pp.
  • Neither Led nor Driven: Contesting British Cultural Imperialism in Jamaica, 1865-1920 By Brian L. Moore; Michele A. Johnson University Press of the West Indies, 2004

Enaji[edit | edit suos]

Fuud[edit | edit suos]

  • B. W. Higman. Jamaican Food: History, Biology, Culture. University of the West Indies Press. 2008. 580pp.
  • K. Reynolds-James Jamaican Recipes Cookbook: Over 50 Most Treasured Jamaican Cuisine Cooking Recipes (Caribbean Recipes)
  • Mordecai, Martin and Pamela Mordecai Culture and Customs of Jamaica

Ischri[edit | edit suos]

  • Black, Clinton (1988) History of Jamaica
  • Cundall, Frank (2014) Studies in Jamaica History
  • Ehrengardt, Thibault The History of Jamaica From 1494 To 1838 (Jamaica Insula)
  • Long, Edward The History of Jamaica: Reflections on Its Situation, Settlements, Inhabitants, Climate, Products, Commerce, Laws, and Government in Three Volumes
  • Marvin, Uzo Jamaica History, British Virgin Island: Tourism, Environment, Government, Politics, Economy
  • Sherlock, Phillip and Hazel Bennett (1998) The Story of the Jamaican People
  • Gardner, William James (2005) The History of Jamaica: From its Discovery by Christopher Columbus to the Year 1872

Ikanami[edit | edit suos]

  • Smith, Aubryn (2013) Jamaica's 50 Years Old Economy..1962 to 2012

Myuuzik[edit | edit suos]

  • Bradley, Lloyd (2001) This is Reggae Music: The Story of Jamaica's Music

Palitix[edit | edit suos]

  • Thomas, Deborah A. and Irene Silverblatt (2004) Modern Blackness: Nationalism, Globalization, and the Politics of Culture in Jamaica (Latin America Otherwise)

Extoernal Lingk[edit | edit suos]

Commons
Wikimedia Commons ab midia rilietid tu: Jumieka.