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Yuuna Maasn

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Yuuna Maasn

Posnal infamieshan

Baan: 5 Febiweri 1905
Ded: 6 Mie 1965
Nashinaliti: Jumiekan

Profeshnal infamieshan

Profeshan: Raita, edita, puoyt, projuusa
Muuvment: Suoshal aktivizim, feminizim, woka raits

Yuuna Maasn, baan Una Maud Victoria Marson (5 Febiweri 1905 – 6 Mie 1965)[1] wena Jumiekan feminis, aktivis ah raita. Shi projuus puoym, plie ah pruogram fi di BBC. Maasn eh-chrabl gaa Landan ina 1932 ah wok fi di BBC juurin Wol Waar II.

Hoerli laif (1905–32)[edit | edit suos]

Yuuna Maasn eh-baan pah 6 Febiweri 1905, ina Santa Kruuz, ina di parish a Sint Ilizibet. Shi ena di yonggis a six pitni fi Rev. Salaman Aizak (Solomon Isaac, 1858–1915), wah Baptis paasn, ah Ieda Maasn (Ada Marson, d. 1930).[1] Yuuna eh-ab migl-klaas braatopsi ah weh kluos-kluos tu ar faada, uu influens som a ar faada figa kiarakta ina ar lieta wok. Az pitni iivn bifuo shi go a skuul shi wena avid riida a avielobl lichicha, deh taim de wena muosli Ingglish klasikal lichicha.

Iej 10, deh inruol ar a Amtan Ai Skuul (Hampton High), wah buodn skuul fi gial ina Jumieka far ar faada eh de pah di buod a chostii. Ousomeba, dat siem ier, Rev. Aizak ded, lef di fambli wid finanshal prablem, so deh muuv gaa Kinston. Yuuna finish skuul a Amtan, bot neh gwaan fi kalij edikieshan.

Afta shi lef frah Amtan, shi fain wok a Kinston az valintier suoshal woka ah yuuz di sekritierial skil, laka stenagrafi, we shi eh-laan a skuul.

Ina 1926, shi get apaint az asistant edita fi di Jumiekan palitikal joernal Jumieka Kritik (Jamaica Critic). Di taim shi dide tiich ar skil azwel influens ar palitikal ah suoshal opinian ah inspaya ar fi kriet ar uona poblikieshan. In fak, ina 1928, shi eh-bikomps Jumieka fos fiimiel edita ah poblisha fi ar uona magaziin, Di Kazmopalitan (The Cosmopolitan). Di Kazmopalitan fiicha aatikl pah feminis tapik, luokal suoshal ishu ah woka raits ah weh iem afta yong, migl-klaas Jumiekan aadiens. Maasn aatikldem ingkorij uman fi jain di wok fuos ah fi get palitikali aktiv. Di magaziin azwel fiicha Jumiekan puoychri ah lichicha frah Maasn fela membadem a di Jumiekan Puoychri Liig, staat by J. E. Klier Makfaalin (J. E. Clare McFarlane).

Ina 1930, Maasn poblish ar fos kalekshan a puoym, intaikl Chrapik Revarii (Tropic Reveries), we diil wid lob ah niecha wid eliment a feminizim. Iwin di Mosgriev Medal frah di Instityuut a Jumieka. Ar puoymdem bout lob kaina pozlin tu ar fren ah kritikdem, az deh naa no evidens a heni romantik rilieshanship ina Maasn laif, alduo lob kantiniu fi bi a kaman tapik ina ar wok. Ina 1931, juu tu finanshal difikolti, Di Kazmopalitan siis poblikieshan, we liid ar fi bigin poblish muo puoychri ah plie. Ina 1931, shi poblish aneda kalekshan a puoychri, intaikl Ait ah Dep (Heights and Depths), we azwel diil wid lob ah suoshal ishu. Azwel ina 1931, shi rait ar fos plie, A Wat a Prais (At What a Price), bout wah Jumiekan gial uu muuv frah konchri kom a di siti a Kinston fi wok az stenagrafa ah faal ina lob wid ar wait miel baas. Di plie opm ina Jumieka ah lieta Landan tu kritikal akliem. Ina 1932, shi disaid fi gaa Landan fi fain braada aadiens fi ar wok ah fi experiens laif outsaida Jumieka.[2]

Landan ierz (1932–36)[edit | edit suos]

Frah 1932 tu 1945, Maasn muuv kom ah go bitwiin Landan ah Jumieka. Shi kantiniu fi kanchribiut tu palitix, bot nou steda fuokos pah rait fi magaziin, shi rait fi nyuuzpiepa ah fiar uona litareri wok so fi get fiar palitikal aidiedem akraas. Demya ier, Maasn kipaan a-rait fi advokiet feminizim, bot wan a ar nyuu emfasis eh-de pah di ries ishu ina Ingglan.

Maasn fos muuv a Landan ina 1932. Di riesizim ah sexizim shi miit de "chranzfaam buot ar laif an ar puoychri"; Di vais ina ar puoychri get muo fuokos pah di aidentiti a blak uman ina Ingglan.[3] Ina dis piiriad den, Maasn no onggl kantiniu fi rait bout umandem ruol ina sasayati, bot azwel shi put ina di mix di ishudem we fies blak piipl uu lib a Ingglan. Ina Julai 1933, shi rait wah puoym kaal "Niga" ("Nigger") we uda apier ina di Liig a Kolad Piipl (League of Coloured Peoples) joernal, Di Kiidem (The Keys); wan a Maasn muo fuosful puoym fi ajres riesizim ina Ingglan, "Niga" onggl si lait sebm ier lieta wen iweh poblish ina 1940.

Outsaida ar raitn deh taim de, Maasn eh ina di Landan branch a di Intanashinal Alayans a Uman (International Alliance of Women), wah gluobal feminis aaganizieshan. Bai 1935, shi weh-invalv wid di Intanashinal Alayans a Uman bies ina Istanbul.

Jumieka (1936–38)[edit | edit suos]

Maasn ritoern baka Jumieka ina 1936, we wan a ar guol eh fi promuot nashinal lichicha. Wan step shi eh-tek fi achiiv dis guol ena fi elp kriet di Kinston Riidaz ah Raitaz Klob, azwel az di Kinston Jraama Klob. Shi azwel foun di Jumieka Sieb di Chiljren Fon, wah aaganizieshan we riez fon fi gi puo pitni moni fi get biesik edikieshan.

Fi promuot Jumiekan lichicha, shi poblish Mat ah di Staar (Moth and the Star), ina 1937. Nof puoym ina dat valyuum demanschriet ou no mata di midia puochryeal se blak uman ab infiiria byuuti kompier tu wait uman, blak uman shuda stil kanfident ina deh uona fizikal byuuti. Dis tiim kiah si ina "Sinima Yai" ("Cinema Eyes"), "Likl Brong Gial" ("Little Brown Girl"), "Blak Fansi" ("Black is Fancy") ah "Kingki Ier Bluuz" ("Kinky Hair Blues"). Ousomeba, Maasn arself eh-afek bai di steriotaip a supiiria wait byuuti; Maasn arself, ar bayagrafa tel wi, widin fyuu mont afta shi kech a Britn "tap chrietn ar ier ah lefi nachral".[4]

Chuu tu ar feminis prinsipl, Maasn wok wid Luwiiz Benit fi kriet aneda plie kaal Landan Kaalin (London Calling), bout wah uman uu muuv gaa Landan fi foerda ar edikieshan. Ousomeba, di uman lieta get uomsik ah gubak a Jumieka. Dis plie shuo ou di mien kiarikta a "chrang eroin" fi iebl "fuos arself fi ritoern a Landan" fi finish ar edikieshan de. Azwel ina di feminis vien, Maasn rait fi Poblik Opinian (Public Opinion), bai kanchribiut tu di feminis kalom.

Maasn tod plie, Pokomienia (Pocomania), a bout wah uman niem Stela uu a-luk fi exaitin laif. Kritik sojes se dis plie signifikant kaa idemanschriet ou wah "Afro-rilijos kolt" afek migle-klaas uman.[5] Pokomienia azwel a wan a fi Maasn muos impuotant wok kaa shi eh-iebl fi put di esn a Jumiekan kolcha ina it. Kritik laka Aivi Baxta (Ivy Baxter) se dat "Pokomienia weh brok chradishan kaa itaak bout kolt frah konchri", ah, az soch, iriprizent wah toernin paint ina wa eh-axep pah di stiej.[6]

Ina 1937, Maasn rait wah puoym kaal Kwaashi kom a Landan (Quashie comes to London), ush a di pospektiv a Ingglan ina Kiaribiyan naritiv. Ina Kiaribiyan dayalek, kwaashi miin golibl ar ansofistikietid. Alduo ih inishali impres, Kwaashi get disgostid wid Ingglan kaa nof gud bikl no dide. Di puoym shuo ou, alduo Ingglan ab gud tingz fi aafa, a Jumieka Kolcha we Kwaashi mis, ah dierfuo Maasn implai se Ingglan supuoz fi bi "di tempareri venyuu fi entatienment".[7] Di puoym shuo ou iweh pasibl fi raita impliment Kiaribiyan dayalek ina puoym, a a dis yuusij a luokal dayalek we sitiet Kwaashi pospektiv a Ingglan az wah Kiaribiyan pospektiv.

Landan ierz (1938–45)[edit | edit suos]

Maasn ritoern baka Landan ina 1938 fi kantiniu wok pah di Jumiekan Sieb di Chiljren prajek we shi eh-staat ina Jumieka, ah azwel fi de pah di staaf a di Jumiekan Standad (Jamaican Standard). Ina 1941, shi get aya bai di BBC Empaya Saabis (Empire Service) fi wok pan a pruogram we Wol Waar II suojadem uda get deh mechiz riid pah riedio tu deh fambili.

Bai 1942, shi eh-bikomps di pruogram Wes Indiz projuusa. Juurin di siem ier, shi ton di pruogram ina Kiaribiyan Vais (Caribbean Voices), az a fuorom we Kiaribiyan litareri wok eh-riid uoba riedio. Uoba tuu onjrid aata apier pah Kiaribiyan Vais, ingkluudn V. S. Naipaal (V. S. Naipaul), Samyuel Selvan (Samuel Selvon), Jaaj Lamin George Lamming) ah Derik Waalkat (Derek Walcott). Chuu dis shuo, Maasn miit piipl laka Klier Makfaalin, Vik Riid (Vic Reid), Anju Salki (Andrew Salkey), Langstan Yuuz (Langston Hughes), Jiemz Weldan Jansn (James Weldon Johnson), Juomo Kenyata (Jomo Kenyatta), Aili Silasi (Haile Selassie), Maakos Gyaavi (Marcus Garvey), Iemi Jiex Gyaavi (Amy Jacques Garvey), Nansi Konaad (Nancy Cunard), Silvia Pangkoers (Sylvia Pankhurst), Winifred Uoltbi (Winifred Holtby), Paal Ruobsn (Paul Robeson), Jan Miesfiil (John Masefield), Luwi Makniis (Louis MacNeice), T. S. Eliat (T. S. Eliot), Tambimutu (Tambimuttu) ah Jaaj Aawel (George Orwell). Di lata wan elp Maasn edit di pruogram bifuo shi eh-toni ina Kiaribiyan Vais. Shi azwel extablish foerm frenship wid Mieri Chredguol (Mary Treadgold), uu ivenchuali tek uoba ar ruol wen Maasn ritoern baka Jumieka. Ousomeba, "no mata demaya expiiriens ah poersnal kanekshan, a chrang sens de ina fi Maasn puoychri ah ina Jarrett-Macauley bayagrafi Di Laif a Yuuna Maasn (The Life of Una Marson), se Maasn rimien kaina a aisolietid ah maajinal figa".[8]

Nondiles, ar riedio shuo, Kiaribiyan Vais, eh-diskraib bai Kamau Bratwiet (Kamau Brathwaite) az "di singgl muos impuotant litareri kiatalis fi Kiaribiyan krietiv raitn ina Ingglish". Sens pah riedio di puoymdem kuda onggl aprishiet uorali, Kiaribiyan Vais elp fi influens lieta Kiaribiyan puoychri fi ab a muo spiikin faam; az Larans Braina (Laurence Breiner) nuot, chuu di midiom a riedio "nof Wes Indian puochri weh ier reda dah si".[9]

Laif afta Wol Waar II (1945–65)[edit | edit suos]

Ditiel a Maasn laif limitid, ah demde potienin tu ar persnal ah profeshanal laif afta 1945 potikiula aad fi fain. Ina 1945, shi poblish wah puoychri kalekshan intaikl Tuwaadz di Staar (Towards the Stars). Dis maak wah shif ina di fuokos a ar puoychri: wails wantaim shi eh-rait bout fiimiel sadnis uoba laas lob, puoym frah Tuwaadz di Staar eh nof muo fuokos pah di indipendant uman.[10] Azwel deh taim ya, Maasn eh-rait akliis wan aatikl intaikl "Wi Waah Buk - Bot Wi Inkorij Wi Raita?" (We Want Books - But Do We Encourage Our Writers?)[11] ina hefoert fi spor Kiaribiyan nashinalizim chuu lichicha. Fieva se ar efoert outsaida ar raitn wok ina kalaborieshan wid demya sentiment, duo kantenshan tuori aafa likl kangkriit evidens bout wa shi du egzakli.

Suosdem kyaah grii pah di houtlain a Maasn persnal laif juurin dis taim piiriad. Aata Erika J. Waataz (Erika J. Waters) stiet se Maasn wena sekriteri fi di Payanier Pres (Pioneer Press), wah poblishin kompini ina Jumieka fi Jumiekan aata. Dis suos biliiv se dat shi eh muuv ina di 1950z gaa Washintan, DC, we shi miit ah marid wah dentis niem Piita Stieplz (Peter Staples). Di tuu alejidli divuos, we lou Maasn fi chrabl gaa Ingglan, Izrel, den bak tu Jumieka, we shi ded ina 1965.[12] Wah nex suos, rait bai Lii M. Jengkinz (Lee M. Jenkins), aafa wah difrah-difrah tuori fi Maasn persnal laif ah se deh eh-sen Maasn a mental aspital afta shi ab briekdong juurin di ierdem 1946-49. Afta shi get riliis, Maasn foun di Payanier Pres. Dis suos kliem se shi eh-gaa Yunaitid Stiet ina di 1950z, we shi eh-ab a nex briekdong ah weh-admit tu Sint Ilizibet Asailom. Afta dis, Maasn ritoern baka Jumieka, we shi rali gens Rastafarai diskriminieshan. Den shi eh-gaa Izrel fi a uman kanfrens, wah expiiriens we shi diskos ina ar laas BBC riedio braadkyaas fi Uman Howa (Woman's Hour).[13]

Di kantenshan rong di ditiel a Maasn persnal laif shuo se a onggl likl-likl infamieshan avielobl bout ar. Fi egzampl, fi Waataz aatikl kuot Maasn kritisizim a Porgi ah Bes (Porgy and Bess), ah yet no provaid no saitieshan fi dis wok. Kombain wid dis a di limitid rekaad a ar raitndem juurin dis tim piiriad. Nof a ar wok lefbak anpoblish ar soerkiuliet onggl ina Jumieka.[14] Muos a demya raitn onggl avielobl ina di Instityuut a Jumieka ina Kinston. Chuu demya kanschrient, idifikolt fi andastan di wuola Maasn akomplishment juurin di fainal piiriad a ar laif.

Kritisizim ah influens[edit | edit suos]

Kritikdem buot priez ah dismis fi Maasn puoychri. Shi eh-kritisaiz fi mimik Yuropiyan stail, laka Ruomantik ah Jaajian powetix. Fi egzampl, Maasn puoym "Ef" (If) parodi di stail a Rodyad Kiplin (Rudyard Kipling) orijinal puoym wid di siem taikl.[15] Denise deCaires Narain sojes se dat Maasn eh-get uobaluk kaa puoychri wa kansoern di kandishan ah stietos a fiimiel no weh impuotant tu aadiens deh taim wen di wok eh-projuus.[16] Ada kritik, pah di apozit, priez Maasn fi ar madan stail. Som, laka Narain, aal sojes se ar mimikin chalinj kanvenshanal puoychri a di taim ina efoert fi kritisaiz Yuropiyan puoyt. No mata, Maasn eh aktiv ina di Wes Indian raitn komiuniti juurin dat piiriad. Ar invalvment wid Kiaribiyan Vais eh impuotant fi poblisaiz Kiaribiyan lichicha intanashinali, azwel fi spor nashinalizim widin di Kiaribiyan ailandem we shi riprizent.

Refrans[edit | edit suos]

  1. 1.0 1.1 DeCaires Narain, Denise, "Marson, Una Maud Victoria", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  2. Jarrett-Macauley, Delia, The Life of Una Marson, 1998.
  3. Waters, Erika J., Una Marson, 204.
  4. Jenkins, Lee M., The Language of Caribbean Poetry (2004), 138.
  5. Banham, Hill, Woodyard, The Cambridge Guide to African and Caribbean Theatre, 212.
  6. Waters, Una Marson, 206.
  7. Donnell, Alison, and Sarah Lawson Welsh, The Routledge Reader in Caribbean Literature (1996), 120.
  8. Narain, Denise deCaires, Contemporary Caribbean Women's Poetry (2002), 3.
  9. Jenkins, The Language of Caribbean Poetry (2004), 127.
  10. Jenkins, "Penelope's Web: Una Marson, Lorna Goodison, M. NourbeSe Philip", 139.
  11. Donnell and Welsh, The Routledge Reader in Caribbean Literature, 185-186.
  12. Waters, "Una Marson", Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol. 157: Caribbean and Black African Writers, third series, 207.
  13. Jenkins, 128-29.
  14. Rosenberg, Leah, "The Pitfalls of Feminist Nationalism and the Career of Una Marson" (2007), 160.
  15. Imaobong D. Umoren, "‘This is the Age of Woman’: Black Feminism and Black Internationalism in the Works of Una Marson, 1928-1938", History of Women in the Americas 1:1, April 2013 (50–73), p. 61.
  16. Narain, Contemporary Caribbean Women's Poetry: Making Style, 2002.