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Influenza

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Influenza, kamanli nuo az "di fluu", a wah infekshos diziiz kaaz bai wah influenza vairos.[1] Simtom kiah bi mail tu sivier.[2] Di muos kaman simtom ingkluud: ai fiiva, ronin nuoz, suo chuot, mosl pien, ediek, kaafin, ah fiilin tayad. Demaya simtom tipikali bigin tuu die afta expuoja tu di vairos ah muos laas les dan a wiik. Di kaaf, ousomeba, kiah laas fi muo dah tuu wiik.[1] Ina pitni, deh kiah ab naaja ah vamitin, bot demaya no kaman ina adolt. Naaja ah vamitin okor muo kamanli ina di anrilietid infekshan giaschoentaraitis, we sohtaim inakiuretli refa tu az "tomok fluu" ar "24-howa fluu".[3] Komplikieshan a influenza kiah ingkluud vairal nyuumuonia, sekanderi baktiirial nyuumuonia, sainos infekshan, ah priivos elt prablem laka azma ar aat fielia get wosara.[2][4]

Chrii taip a influenza vairos afek piipl. Deh kaal Taip A, Taip B, ah Taip C.[4] Yuujali, di vairos pred chuu di ier frah kaaf ar siniiz.[1] Dis biliiv fi okor muosli uoba relitivli shaat distans.[5] Ikiah aalso pred ef smadi toch soerfis kantaminiet bai di vairos ah den toch deh mout ar yaidem.[2][5] A poersn kiah bi infekshos tu ada wandem buot bifuo ah juurin di taim wen dem a-shuo simtom.[2] Di hinfekshan kiah kanfoerm bai tesin di chuot, spyuutom, ar nuoz fi di vairos. Wah nomba a rapid tes avielebl; ousomeba, piipl kiah stil ab di infekshan iibm ef di rizolt negitiv. Wah taip a palimariez chien riakshan we ditek di vairos RNA muo akiuret.[4]

Friikuent an washin rijuus di rix a infekshan bikaa di vairos inaktiviet bai suop.[6] Fi wier soerjikal maax aalso yuusful.[6] Ierli vaxinieshan gens influenza rikomen bai di Wol Elt Aaganizieshan fi demde we ab ai rix. Di vaxiin yuujali ifektiv gens chrii ar fuo taip a influenza.[1] Iyuujali talariet wel. Vaxiin we mek fi wan ier maita no yuusful agen ina di falarin ier, sens di vairos ivalv pah di rapid. Antivairal jogz laka di nyuuraminidiez inibita oseltamivir, mongx adawandem, eh-yuuz fi chriit influenza.[1] Deh benifit ina demde uu adawaiz elti no apier fi bi grieta dah deh rix.[7] No benifit no fain fi demde wid ada elt prablem.[7][8]

Influenza pred rong di wol ina ierli outbriek, we rizolt ina bout chrii tu faib milian kies a sivier ilnis ah bout 250,000 tu 500,000 det.[1] Ina di Nadan ah Sodan paat a di wol outbriek okor mienli ina winta wails ina ieria rong di ikwieta outbriek kiah okor a heni taim a di ier.[1] Det okor muosli ina di yong, di uol ah demde wid adaels elt prablem.[1] Laaja outbriek nuo az pandemik les friikuent.[4] Ina di 20t senchri chrii influenza pandemik eh-okor: Panish influenza ina 1918, Iejan influenza ina 1958, ah Ang Kang influenza ina 1968, wid iich wan rizolt ina muo dah milian det.[9] Di Wol Elt Aaganizieshan diklier outbriek a wah nyuu taip a influenza A/H1N1  az pandemik ina Juun 2009.[10] Influenza kiah aalso afek adaels animal, ingkluudn ag, aas ah bod.[11]

Sain ah simtom[edit | edit suos]

Muos sensitiv simtom fi dayagnuoz influenza[12]
Simtom: sensitiviti  spisifisiti
Fiiva 68–86% 25–73%
Kaaf 84–98% 7–29%
Niezal kanjeshan 68–91% 19–41%
  • Aal chrii faindin, espeshal fiiva, eh les sensitiv ina piipl uoba 60 ier a iej.
Simtom a influenza,[13] wid fiiva ah kaaf di muos kaman simtom.[12]

Apraximetli 33% a piipl wid influenza deh asimtomatik.[14]

Simtom a influenza kiah taat kwait sodn wan tu tuu die afta infekshan. Yuujali di fos simtom a chil ar chili sensieshan, bot fiiva aalso kaman hoerli ina di infekshan, wid badi tempicha rienj frah 38 tu 39 °C (aproximetli 100 tu 103 °F). Nof piipl so sik tel deh kanfain tu bed fi sebral die, wid iek and pien raichuu deh badi, wosara ina deh bak ah leg. Simtom a influenza kiah ingkluud:

  • Fiiva ah exchriim kuolnis (chil shivarin, shiekin (riga))
  • Kaaf
  • Niezal kanjeshan
  • Ronin nuoz
  • Siniizin
  • Badi iek, espeshali jaint ah chuot
  • Fatiig
  • Ediek
  • Iritietid, waatarin yaidem
  • Redn yai, kin (espeshali fies), mout, chuot ah nuoz
  • Petechial rash[15]
  • Ina pitni, giaschointestinal simtom laka dayariya ah abdaminal pien,[16][17] (maita sivier ina pitni wid influenza B)[18]

Ikiah difikolt fi distingguish bitwiin die kaman kuol ah influenza ina di hoerli stiej a demaya infekshan,[19] bot a fluu kiah bi aidentifai bai ai fiiva wid a sodn anset ah exchriim fatiig. Influenza a wah mixcha a simtom a kaman kuol ah nyuumuonia, badi iek, ediek, ah fatiig. Dayariya a no naamali a simtom a influenza ina adolt,[12] alduo ifain ina som yuuman kies a di H5N1 "bod fluu"[20] ah kiah bi a simtom ina pitni.[16] Di muos rilayabl simtom fi influenza shuo ina di tiebl tu di rait.[12]

Sens antivairal jogz ifectiv fi chriit influenza ef di poersn geti hoerli, ikiah bi impuotant fi aidentifai kies hoerli. Outa di simtom lisout opatap, di kombinieshan a fiiva wid kaaf, suo chuot an/ar niezal kanjeshan kiah impruuv dayagnastik akiuresi.[21] Tuu disijan analisis todi[22][23] sojes se dat juurin luokal outbriek a influenza, di privalens wi bi uoba 70%,[23] ah so pieshent wid heni a demaya kombinieshan a simtom kiah chriit wid nyuuraminidiez inibita widoutn tes. Iibm ina di absens a luokal outbriek, chriitment kiah jostifai ina di eldali juurin di influenza siizn az lang az di privalens a uoba 15%.[23]

Di avielebl labrichri tesdem fi influenza kantiniu fi impruuv. Di Yunaitid Stiet Senta fi Diziiz Kanchuol ah Privenshan (CDC) mentien wah op-tu-diet somari a avielebl labrichri tes.[24] Askaadin tu di CDC, rapid dayagnastik tes ab a sensitiviti a 50–75% ah spisifisiti a 90–95% wen kompier wid vairal kolcha.[25] Demaya tes maita espeshali yuusful juurin di influenza siizn (privalens=25%) bot ina di absens a luokal outbriek, ar peri-influenza siizn (privalens=10%[23]).

Okiejanali, influenza kiah kaaz sivier ilnis ingkluudn praimri vairal nyuumuonia ar sekanderi baktiirial nyuumuonia.[26][27] Di abvios simtom a chobl wid briidin. Adishanali, ef a pitni (ar prizyuumebli wah adolt) siim fi a-get beta ah den rilaps wid ai fiiva, dat a dienja sain sens dis rilaps kiah bi baktiirial nyuumuonia.[28]

Refrans[edit | edit suos]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "Influenza (Seasonal) Fact sheet N°211." March 2014. Nuoroda tikrinta 25 November 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) & Flu Vaccine." September 9, 2014. Nuoroda tikrinta 26 November 2014.
  3. Duben-Engelkirk, Paul G. Engelkirk, Janet (2011). Burton's microbiology for the health sciences (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 314. ISBN 9781605476735. https://books.google.com/books?id=RaVKCQI75voC&pg=PA355. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Longo, Dan L. (2012). "187: Influenza". Harrison's principles of internal medicine. (18th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 9780071748896. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Transmission of influenza A in human beings". Lancet Infect Dis 7 (4): 257–65. April 2007. Template:Citation error. PMID 17376383. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (7): CD006207. 2011. Template:Citation error. PMID 21735402. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Michiels, B; Van Puyenbroeck, K; Verhoeven, V; Vermeire, E; Coenen, S (2013). "The value of neuraminidase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of seasonal influenza: a systematic review of systematic reviews.". PLoS ONE 8 (4): e60348. Template:Citation error. PMID 23565231. 
  8. Ebell, MH; Call, M; Shinholser, J (April 2013). "Effectiveness of oseltamivir in adults: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished clinical trials.". Family practice 30 (2): 125–33. Template:Citation error. PMID 22997224. 
  9. "Ten things you need to know about pandemic influenza." World Health Organization: 14 October 2005. Nuoroda tikrinta 26 September 2009.
  10. World Health Organization.
  11. Palmer, S. R. (2011). Oxford textbook of zoonoses : biology, clinical practice, and public health control (2. ed.). Oxford u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 332. ISBN 9780198570028. https://books.google.com/books?id=S90mOwgdz9kC&pg=PA332. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 "Does this patient have influenza?". JAMA 293 (8): 987–97. 2005. Template:Citation error. PMID 15728170. 
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention > Influenza Symptoms Page last updated 16 November 2007.
  14. Time Lines of Infection and Disease in Human Influenza: A Review of Volunteer Challenge Studies, American Journal of Epidemiology, Carrat, Vergu, Ferguson, et al., 167 (7): 775–785, 2008.
  15. "Acute fever and petechial rash associated with influenza A virus infection". Clinical Infectious Diseases 29 (2): 453–4. August 1999. Template:Citation error. PMID 10476766. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Richards S (2005). "Flu blues". Nurs Stand 20 (8): 26–7. PMID 16295596. 
  17. Heikkinen T (July 2006). "Influenza in children". Acta Paediatr. 95 (7): 778–84. Template:Citation error. PMID 16801171. 
  18. "Gastric 'flu influenza B causing abdominal symptoms in children". Lancet 1 (7902): 291–5. 1975. Template:Citation error. PMID 46444. 
  19. Eccles, R (2005). "Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza". Lancet Infect Dis 5 (11): 718–25. Template:Citation error. PMID 16253889. 
  20. Hui DS (March 2008). "Review of clinical symptoms and spectrum in humans with influenza A/H5N1 infection". Respirology 13 Suppl 1: S10–3. Template:Citation error. PMID 18366521. 
  21. "Clinical signs and symptoms predicting influenza infection". Arch Intern Med 160 (21): 3243–7. 2000. Template:Citation error. PMID 11088084. http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/160/21/3243.pdf. 
  22. "Cost-effectiveness of newer treatment strategies for influenza". Am J Med 113 (4): 300–7. 2002. Template:Citation error. PMID 12361816. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 "Management of influenza in adults older than 65 years of age: cost-effectiveness of rapid testing and antiviral therapy". Annals of Internal Medicine 139 (5 Pt 1): 321–9. 2 September 2003. Template:Citation error. PMID 12965940. http://www.annals.org/content/139/5_Part_1/321.full.pdf. 
  24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  25. "Rapid Diagnostic Testing for Influenza: Information for Clinical Laboratory Directors." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 13 October 2015. Nuoroda tikrinta 2 February 2016.
  26. Hospitalized Patients with 2009 H1N1 Influenza in the United States, April–June 2009, New England Journal of Medicine, Jain, Kamimoto, et al., 12 November 2009.
  27. Transcript of virtual press conference with Gregory Hartl, Spokesperson for H1N1, and Dr Nikki Shindo, Medical Officer, Global Influenza Programme, World Health Organization, 12 November 2009.
  28. Report Finds Swine Flu Has Killed 36 Children, New York Times, DENISE GRADY, 3 September 2009.
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